Drapene på syv FN-ansatte kunne skje pga en blanding av slendrian, likegyldighet og passivitet fra afghansk politi. Det lover svært dårlig for overføringen av ansvar til afghanske myndigheter.
Hvis ikke myndighetene kan garantere sikkerheten til hjelpepersonell, kan det ende med at de trekkes ut. Heller ikke denne risikoen ser myndighetene ut til å ta alvorlig.
Det var president Hamed Karzai selv som tok opp Koran-brenningen til Terry Jones, og hvorfor skulle han det hvis det ikke var for å utnytte den politisk.
Daily Telegraph har kartlagt hva som skjedde da mobben stormet FN-leiren. En av de fremste religiøse lederne er kjent for nære forbindelser til Iran.
Men det som gjør en slik mobb mulig, er at mange krefter med ulike motiver ser seg tjent med å spille på antivestlige følelser.
Det er symptomatisk at lederen for UNAMA, en russisk diplomat, gikk ut for å møte demonstrantene, som gikk løs på ham og slo ham helseløs, men han rakk å si den muslimske troserklæringen «det er ingen annen gud enn Allah», og for det ble han spart.
As UN investigators continued their inquiries last night, senior police officials and eyewitnesses in Mazar-i-Sharif described how incompetence, cowardice and indifference were key factors in leaving some of the UN’s most dedicated staff at the mercy of a baying mob.
Nyheter fra Vesten finner veien til Afghanistan, hvor de kan utnyttes i propaganda, for å vinne tilhengere ved å hisse opp mot de fremmede.
Det hjelper ikke at moderne massemedier gir stadig nye eksempler på situasjoner der afghanere eller irakere eller andre muslimer fremstår i en offerrolle. I tilfellet Kill Team er realiteten sørgelig korrekt: Gruppen av amerikanske soldater som hadde drept sivile afghanere for moro skyld og tatt bilder av dem. De stilles for retten, men bildene sendes ut i verden der de fortolkes og presenteres som representative for USA og ISAF.
Dette kom i tillegg til Terry Jones’ Koran-brenning.
The flames spread quickly to Afghanistan where anti-American and Western feelings were already running high over revelations that an American ‘Kill Team’ had tortured and killed innocent Afghans and taken photographs of their bodies as ‘trophies.’ Imams throughout Afghanistan told their followers of Pastor Jones’ antics at Friday prayers on March 25th and anger spread rapidly in the days following the prayers as Islamic scholars organised protests in Kabul, Herat, Kandahar and Mazar-i-Sharif – one of the country’s hitherto most peaceful cities.
In Mazar-i-Sharif, leading Shia and Sunni Muslim scholars from local mosques and Balkh University discussed their plans for a ‘Day of Rage’ to voice their anger. Some were members of the provincial council and informed their colleagues about the planned protest after Friday prayers on April 1, council leader Dr Mohammad Afzel Hadeed told The Sunday Telegraph. Police chiefs were also informed.
On Wednesday leaflets were handed out to Islamic Studies students at the local university and on Thursday, cars mounted with loudhailers toured the city’s streets to drum up support for the following day’s protest. According to student Abdul Rahim, the leaflet urged Muslims to «Come out to defend our Koran,» he said.
On Friday, at least six scholars began preaching at 1pm at the city’s famous blue-domed Rauza Sharif mosque, where Imam Ali, the Prophet Mohammad’s grandson is believed to be buried. When they emerged an hour later they roused a growing crowd of demonstrators from a sound system as they marched towards the UN compound.
Governor Atta Mohammad Noor said the protest leaders had given notice 24 hours earlier, but had not disclosed plans to march on the UN compound.
His claim was denied by provincial council leader Mohammad Afzal Hadeed, who said the protest leaders had said they wanted to hand in a resolution to the UN and demand it helps bring Pastor Jones and his followers to ‘justice.’
Mr Hadaad said he had addressed the demonstrators himself, urging them to register their protest and walked with the protesters for the first hour but then left to attend to a domestic issue at home. «Oh yes, we just told them to protest so that we show our feelings. It was a peaceful demonstration,» he said.
At that stage there were an estimated 1000 marchers stewarded from the front by 30 members of the disciplined Afghan National Civil Order Police, in anti-riot gear and armed with guns and Perspex shields.
According to deputy police chief Raouf Taj a further 70 members of the Afghan National Police, known for its corruption and ill-discipline, completed the security provision.
As the crowd swelled, it quickly became clear the police contingent was dangerously outnumbered, Mr Taj told The Sunday Telegraph. Police numbers were «several times lower than the protesters» and his men «did not want to fire on protesters unless they were ordered to do so.
Svikten er på flere nivåer, den mest alvorlige er på det struktrurelle plan: at hverken politiske eller religiøse ledere vil ta ansvar, men bruker de kulturelle konfliktene som ammunisjon, helt uten tanke på konsekvensene.
Når mobben først er mobilisert, finnes det ikke disiplin og autoritet til å stanse den.
A number of protesters said they had warned the police to back off and threatened to attack them if they did not. «We told the police that this fight between us and the infidels. They agreed first, but then they fired on us,» said protester Abdul Hamid.
As the threat increased, the UN’s local head of mission, Russian diplomat Pavel Ershov came out of the compound to speak to protest leaders to diffuse the tension. But according to one police officer stationed by the UN gate, he was attacked by angry protesters who punched and kicked him.
«He had instructed the security forces guarding the compound not to open fire because firing would provoke the protesters to storm the office,» he said, but when the protesters attacked him he had said, in Arabic, «the Holy words, there is no God but Allah, and that’s why his life was spared.»
He was rushed to hospital by police.
On all sides of the compound protesters scaled the security walls on ladders, threw stones, attacked armed police and seized their guns before shooting the UN’s ex-Gurkha guards.
Video footage broadcast on Afghan television showed armed police in disarray, some firing in the air, while protesters atop the security walls used cable-cutters to dismantle barbed wire and toppled a guard tower inside a compound corner. One protester was shown smashing a machine against a kerb in a fit of anger.
Police said their firing in the air and at the legs of some of the protesters had caused several thousand to flee but several hundred remained and overran the compound.
Det synes klart at det var en kjerne aktivister som var fast bestemt på å straffe de vantro og storme FN-bygningen. De innenfor var sjanseløse.
On any normal working day, there would have been 15 UN international staff and around 40 Afghan nationals working inside the compound, but on Friday, part of the Afghan weekend, there were far fewer.
Among those working their weekend was Swedish human rights worker Joakim Dungel, a 27-year-old legal specialist who is believed to have been posted to Mazar-i-Sharif earlier this year to prepare him for a stint at a more dangerous mission in Afghanistan.
Lieutenant-Colonel Siri Skare, a 53-year-old female pilot from Norway, and an unnamed Romanian official were also killed as the mob, many of them armed according to the UN, ran wild, setting fire to the building and attacking staff.
UN officials were unable to confirm reports that two of their staff were beheaded in the rampage, or explain why they had not taken shelter in a security bunker believed to be in the basement.
To lokale prester som talte til mengden rett før angrepet, er under mistanke.
Two local clerics, Abdul Raouf Tawana, a scholar with close ties with Iranian diplomats, and Maulvi Qahir, a Tajik from believed to have old links to the former Taliban regime. They were seen preaching to the crowd shortly before the violence started but left before the compound was attacked.
Hele forløpet er en «downer» for det internasjonale samfunn. Afghanistan svikter på mange områder, det er vanskelig å se grunn til optimisme. Mazar-e Sharif går for å være det mest fredelige område av landet.
UN launches investigation into Afghanistan murders
The United Nations has launched an investigation into why Afghan police failed to stop a massacre of its staff by Muslims protesters who broke into its Mazar-i-Sharif compound on Friday.