Hvorfor skjedde bombingen av Marriott og Ritz-Carlton-hotellene? Indonesia skryter av at det ikke har skjedd en terrorhandling siden 2005. Men kritikerne sier bombene viser at Indonesia ikke har greid å rykke ekstremismen opp med roten.
Indonesia har jaget Jemaah Islamiyah, og lyktes å ta mange av de aktive i nettverket. Men myndighetene har ikke våget å gripe inn overfor de rundt 40 islamske skolene i landet, mot radikale predikanter og ekstremist-litteratur. Det har både sammenheng med at Suhartos diktatur falt og at islam dominerer i den grad at myndighetene ikke våger å bruke sanksjoner mot noe som er muslimsk. Selv moderate ville reagert på det. Men prisen er at ekstremismen får beholde sine nettverk, sine penger, og sine nye rekrutter. Da blir resultatet flere bomber.
But as a clearer picture has begun emerging of Friday’s coordinated suicide bombings at the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels here, terrorism experts and some Indonesian officials are focusing on what they describe as weaknesses in Indonesia’s antiterrorism campaign. Although the authorities have arrested hundreds of militants and severely weakened Jemaah Islamiyah, the Southeast Asian terrorist network, they have had much less success in uprooting the culture that breeds extremism.
The authorities have failed to aggressively check the radical clerics, Islamic schools or publishing houses that allow extremists to recruit and raise money for their operations, these experts said. Even moderate, politically powerful religious leaders, who are against violence, oppose any perceived government interference in their affairs. And as democracy has become entrenched since the fall of Suharto a decade ago, the authorities have appeared hesitant to use tactics that may recall the era of military rule.
But experts said that the authorities have been reluctant to rein in clerics and schools that have allowed extremists like Mr. Noordin to continue operating.
«On the law enforcement side, the achievements have been certifiable,» said Sidney Jones, an expert on Islamic terrorism at the International Crisis Group’s branch here in Jakarta. But Ms. Jones said that, at an estimated 50 schools with ties to Jemaah Islamiyah, fugitives are sheltered, new recruits are found and money is raised.
«These places remain nodes of communication that are critical to keeping the network alive,» she said. «Everybody knows where these schools are, but there’s been a sensitivity in dealing with them because people don’t want to see Islamic education stigmatized.»
Islamic schools, called «pesantrens» here, have long played a central role in many Indonesian communities. Only a few are said to espouse violent tactics. But the schools, which are politically powerful, have long resisted greater government scrutiny.
«It would be very difficult to start questioning ulamas from these schools,» said a senior Indonesian counter-terrorism official, referring to Islamic scholars at the schools and speaking on the condition of anonymity because he was not allowed to speak to the media. «Even moderate Indonesians would react negatively against that.»
Det ser ut til at muslimer har problemer med å akseptere inngripen mot ekstremister så lenge de svøper seg i islams kappe. Det finnes noen reflekser som sier at det er et angrep på religionen. Men så lenge man kun stoler på politiarbeid, kommer man til kort.
Det er for øvrig samme politikk som mange i Norge går inn for: anti-terrorarbeid er kun en sak der det foreligger konkrete planer. Å snuse i mentalitet og synspunkter er å krenke personvernet. Da får ekstremismen fritt spillerom.