Hans Magnus Enzensberger har gjort seg noen tanker om en spesiell type taper, som vil ha hevn, eksplosiv hevn, over samfunnet. Sosiologer forsøker å kartlegge taperne, men rygger unna den metafysiske dimensjonen. Ønsket om å torpedere seg selv og samfunnet.
Terroren har gjort «taperne» aktuelle, og omhyller begrepet i frykt. I opptøyene i Frankrike fikk taperne et skjær av heltemot rundt seg. Av rettferdig harme. Men samfunnet vet ikke helt hvordan de skal håndtere taperne:
Identifying the one person among the hundreds passing through their offices and surgeries who is prepared to go all the way is more than they are capable of. Maybe they sense that this is not just a social issue that can be repaired by bureaucratic means. For the loser keeps his ideas to himself. That is the trouble. He keeps quiet and waits. He lets nothing show. Which is precisely why he is feared. In historical terms, this fear is very old, but today it is more justified than ever. Anyone with the smallest scrap of power within society will at times feel something of the huge destructive energy that lies within the radical loser and which no intervention can neutralize, however well-meaning or serious it might be.
He can explode at any moment. This is the only solution to his problem that he can imagine: a worsening of the evil conditions under which he suffers. The newspapers run stories on him every week: the father of two who killed his wife, his small children and finally himself. Unthinkable! A headline in the local section: A Family Tragedy. Or the man who suddenly barricades himself in his apartment, taking the landlord, who wanted money from him, as his hostage. When the police finally gets to the scene, he starts shooting. He is then said to have «run amok», a word borrowed from the Malayan.
Bjørneboe var opptatt av mennesker som plutselig gikk amok: slakteren som etter års normalitet plutselig eksploderte i vold. (Bjørneboe hadde en teori om føhnvinden som gjorde folk gale.)
Men, sier Enzensberger: Antall tapere som går amok har økt. Kan det ha noe med velstandssamfunnet å gjøre? at samtidig som mennesker har fått det bedre, har de fått så mye mer å irritere seg og bli frustrert over?
This increase leads one to conclude that there are more and more radical losers. This is due to the so-called «state of things.» This might refer equally to the world market or to an insurance company that refuses to pay.
But anyone wishing to understand the radical loser would be well advised to go a little further back. Progress has not put an end to human suffering, but it has changed it in no small way. Over the past two centuries, the more successful societies have fought for and established new rights, new expectations and new demands. They have done away with the notion of an inevitable fate. They have put concepts like human dignity and human rights on the agenda. The have democratized the struggle for recognition and awakened expectations of equality which they are unable to fulfil. And at the same time, they have made sure that inequality is constantly demonstrated to all of the planet’s inhabitants round the clock on every television channel. As a result, with every stage of progress, people’s capacity for disappointment has increased accordingly.
Enzensberger siterer filosofen Odo Marquard:
«Instead, they are taken for granted and attention focuses on those ills that re2_kommentar. And these re2_kommentaring ills are subject to the law of increasing annoyance. The more negative elements disappear from reality, the more annoying the re2_kommentaring negative elements become, precisely because of this decrease in numbers.»
This is an understatement. For what we are dealing with here is not annoyance, but murderous rage. What the loser is obsessed with is a comparison that never goes in his favour. Since the desire for recognition knows no limits, the pain threshold inevitably sinks and the affronts become more and more unbearable. The irritability of the loser increases with every improvement that he notices in the lot of others. The yardstick is never those who are worse off than himself. In his eyes, it is not they who are constantly being insulted, humbled and humiliated, but only ever him, the radical loser.
The question as to why this should be so only adds to his torment. Because it certainly cannot be his own fault. That is inconceivable. Which is why he must find the guilty ones who are responsible for his plight.
Det forekommer oss at dette er en beskrivelse som kunne passe på Norge, hvor det er en voldsom oppmerksomhet om feil og mangler, så man får inntrykk av store urettferdigheter. De fleste taper-problemer skal løses med penger.
Hva skjer når taperne organiserer seg og finner et «hjem» blant likesinnede? Enzensberger ramser opp en hel haug med motstands- og frigjøringsbevegelser, og mener de har noe av taper-dynamikken. Drevet av mindreverd og stormannsgalskap.
Med den islamske terroren står verden overfor et nytt fenomen, selv om den låner flittig fra forgjengerne.
the Islamists are perfectly happy to plunder the arsenal of their predecessors. It is often overlooked that modern terrorism is a European invention of the nineteenth century. Its most important ancestors came from Czarist Russia, but it can also look back on a long history in Western Europe. In recent times, the left-wing terrorism of the 1970s has proved a source of inspiration, with Islamists borrowing many of its symbols and techniques. The style of their announcements, the use of video recordings, the emblematic significance of the Kalashnikov, even the gestures, body language and dress, all this shows how much they have learned from these western role models.
There is also no mistaking other similarities, such as the fixation with written authorities. The place of Marx and Lenin is taken by the Koran, references are made not to Gramsci but to Sayyid Qutb. Instead of the international proletariat, it takes as its revolutionary subject the Umma, and as its avant-garde and self-appointed representative of the masses it takes not The Party but the widely branching conspiratorial network of Islamist fighters. Although the movement can draw on older rhetorical forms which to outsiders may sound high-flown or big-mouthed, it owes many of its idées fixes to its Communist enemy: history obeys rigid laws, victory is inevitable, deviationists and traitors are to be exposed and then, in fine Leninist tradition, bombarded with ritual insults.
The movement’s list of favourite foes is also short on surprises: America, the decadent West, international capital, Zionism. The list is completed by the unbelievers, that is to say the re2_kommentaring 5.2 billion people on the planet. Not forgetting apostate Muslims who may be found among the Shiites, Ibadhis, Alawites, Zaidites, Ahmadiyyas, Wahhabis, Druze, Sufis, Kharijites, Ishmaelites or other religious communities.
Enzensberger er innom Weimar-republikken og nazistene. Nederlaget lå innebygd fra starten av. Noe av den samme undergangsdriften finner han i jihadismen. Det gjør den ekstra livsfarlig:
Contrary to what the West appears to believe, the destructive energy of Islamist actions is directed 2_kommentarly against Muslims. This is not a tactical error, not a case of «collateral damage». In Algeria alone, Islamist terror has cost the lives of at least 50,000 fellow Algerians. Other sources speak of as many as 150,000 murders, although the military and the secret services were also involved. In Iraq and Afghanistan, too, the number of Muslim victims far outstrips the death toll among foreigners. Furthermore, terrorism has been highly detrimental not only to the image of Islam but also to the living conditions of Muslims around the world.
The Islamists are as unconcerned about this as the Nazis were about the downfall of Germany. As the avant-garde of death, they have no regard for the lives of their fellow believers. In the eyes of the Islamists, the fact that most Muslims have no desire to blow themselves and others sky high only goes to show that they deserve no better than to be liquidated themselves. After all, the aim of the radical loser is to make as many other people into losers as possible. As the Islamists see it, the fact that they are in the minority can only be because they are the chosen few.