Sakset/Fra hofta

Utenriksminister Sergej Lavrov anklager opposisjonen i Ukraina for ikke å ha holdt sin del av avtalen og snakker om et «indre kupp». Moskva forsøker å undergrave opposisjonens troverdighet ved å fremstille den som politisk betent.

Sergei Lavrov, the Russian foreign minister, says the Ukrainian opposition has failed to abide by Friday’s peace deal and «seized power in Kiev».

«The Ukrainian opposition is deviating from the agreement, having in effect seized power in Kiev, refused to disarm and continued to place its bets on violence,» Mr Lavrov told John Kerry, the US secretary of state, in a telephone call today, his ministry said in a statement.

He told Mr Kerry «the most important thing now is to provide for the complete fulfilment» of the agreement brokered by three European foreign ministers.

Mr Lavrov «drew attention to the fact that the document bears the signatures of representatives of several Western states, and that the United States officially welcomed its conclusion,» the staement said.

Slike signaler fra Moskva lyder som trusler i ørene til alle folk som har vært under sovjetisk dominans. Vil Putin våge å bruke Krim-kortet?

Moskva har ihvertfall ingen skrupler med å bruke nazikortet. Men det er et frekt stykke propagandaarbeid, skriver Yale-historiker Timothy Snyder i en artikkel i neste nummer av New York Review of Books.

Moskva benytter seg av prestisjen som seieren i annen verdenskrig ga. Skulle ikke Moskva vite å gjenkjenne fascister?

The protests in the Maidan, we are told again and again by Russian propaganda and by the Kremlin’s friends in Ukraine, mean the return of National Socialism to Europe. The Russian foreign minister, in Munich, lectured the Germans about their support of people who salute Hitler. The Russian media continually make the claim that the Ukrainians who protest are Nazis. Naturally, it is important to be attentive to the far right in Ukrainian politics and history. It is still a serious presence today, although less important than the far right in France, Austria, or the Netherlands. Yet it is the Ukrainian regime rather than its opponents that resorts to anti-Semitism, instructing its riot police that the opposition is led by Jews. In other words, the Ukrainian government is telling itself that its opponents are Jews and us that its opponents are Nazis.

Så tar Snyder for seg ideologene i Moskva og de forfekter en ideologi som har sterke preg av nettopp nasjonalsosialisme.


The Eurasian ideology draws an entirely different lesson from the twentieth century. Founded around 2001 by the Russian political scientist Aleksandr Dugin, it proposes the realization of National Bolshevism. Rather than rejecting totalitarian ideologies, Eurasianism calls upon politicians of the twenty-first century to draw what is useful from both fascism and Stalinism. Dugin’s major work, The Foundations of Geopolitics, published in 1997, follows closely the ideas of Carl Schmitt, the leading Nazi political theorist. Eurasianism is not only the ideological source of the Eurasian Union, it is also the creed of a number of people in the Putin administration, and the moving force of a rather active far-right Russian youth movement. For years Dugin has openly supported the division and colonization of Ukraine.


The point man for Eurasian and Ukrainian policy in the Kremlin is Sergei Glazyev, an economist who like Dugin tends to combine radical nationalism with nostalgia for Bolshevism. He was a member of the Communist Party and a Communist deputy in the Russian parliament before cofounding a far-right party called Rodina, or Motherland. In 2005 some of its deputies signed a petition to the Russian prosecutor general asking that all Jewish organizations be banned from Russia.

Later that year Motherland was banned from taking part in further elections after complaints that its advertisements incited racial hatred. The most notorious showed dark-skinned people eating watermelon and throwing the rinds to the ground, then called for Russians to clean up their cities. Glazyev’s book Genocide: Russia and the New World Order claims that the sinister forces of the “new world order” conspired against Russia in the 1990s to bring about economic policies that amounted to “genocide.” This book was published in English by Lyndon LaRouche’s magazine Executive Intelligence Review with a preface by LaRouche. Today Executive Intelligence Review echoes Kremlin propaganda, spreading the word in English that Ukrainian protesters have carried out a Nazi coup and started a civil war.

Det er forbausende hvor lite oppmerksomhet Putins ideologer og ideologi har fått. Det er når man leser om disse at man bedre forstår Putins ord om at Sovjetunionens sammenbrudd var den største geopolitiske katastrofen i det 20. århundre.


The populist media campaign for the Eurasian Union is now in the hands of Dmitry Kiselyov, the host of the most important talk show in Russia, and since December also the director of the state-run Russian media conglomerate designed to form national public opinion. Best known for saying that gays who die in car accidents should have their hearts cut from their bodies and incinerated, Kiselyov has taken Putin’s campaign against gay rights and transformed it into a weapon against European integration. Thus when the then German foreign minister, who is gay, visited Kiev in December and met with Vitali Klitschko, the heavyweight champion and opposition politician, Kiselyov dismissed Klitschko as a gay icon. According to the Russian foreign minister, the exploitation of sexual politics is now to be an open weapon in the struggle against the “decadence” of the European Union.

Hvilken virkning vil en slik propagandabruk av nazikortet kunne få? Det vil over tid føre til en devaluering av ordet nazi og fascisme. Snyders ord kunne også brukes om en politisk elite i Vest som skjærer alle som utfordrer dem fra høyre over samme kam; ved å redusere dem til hva de «egentlig» er. Slik ordbruk kan bare vekke motvilje og svekke bryte ned antistoffene mot vold og ekstremisme innenfra.

Hvis ulven roper ulv vil folk bli forvirret og mistro alle.

Det gjelder også bruken av det antisemittiske kortet. Sovjetkommunismen tiltrakk seg mange jøder, med dreide under Stalin i antisemittisk retning.

It (red.:WWII) ended with the Soviet Union expelling surviving Jews across its own border into Poland. After the founding of the State of Israel, Stalin began associating Soviet Jews with a world capitalist conspiracy, and undertook a campaign of arrests, deportations, and murders of leading Jewish writers. When he died in 1953 he was preparing a larger campaign against Jews.

After Stalin’s death communism took on a more and more ethnic coloration, with people who wished to revive its glories claiming that its problem was that it had been spoiled by Jews.

Nasjonalbolsjeviken Putin

Stalins etniske rensing av kommunsimen førte til den nasjonalbolsjevisme Putin bekjenner seg til, og i den inngår en stor porsjon antisemittisme.


The ethnic purification of the communist legacy is precisely the logic of National Bolshevism, which is the foundational ideology of Eurasianism today. Putin himself is an admirer of the philosopher Ivan Ilin, who wanted Russia to be a nationalist dictatorship.

Moskvas kyniske bruk av historien forvirrer oss. Man hører det i BBC-reporterne på Maidan, som gjentar påstandene om høyreekstreme. Noen mer villig enn andre.

Moskva kjenner liberalernes myke hjerter, og deres reflekser. Ingenting har en slik virkning som nazikortet. Men hvilken virkning har det over tid?

What does it mean when the wolf cries wolf? Most obviously, propagandists in Moscow and Kiev take us for fools—which by many indications is quite justified.

Snyder mener en slik kynisk bruk av historien vil tømme begrepene for mening.

The history of the Holocaust is part of our own public discourse, our agora, or maidan. The current Russian attempt to manipulate the memory of the Holocaust is so blatant and cynical that those who are so foolish to fall for it will one day have to ask themselves just how, and in the service of what, they have been taken in. If fascists take over the mantle of antifascism, the memory of the Holocaust will itself be altered. It will be more difficult in the future to refer to the Holocaust in the service of any good cause, be it the particular one of Jewish history or the general one of human rights.