Sakset/Fra hofta

Pews intervju med 38.000 muslimer i 39 forskjellige land fortjener oppmerksomhet.

Av sammendraget å dømme har en stor majoritet et syn på islam og modernitet som mulig å forene. Men de har holdninger som i vestlige øyne er uforenlige eller selvmotsigende. Kanskje det tyder på en pågående prosess, men også på en type forstillelse: man vil gjerne ha i pose og sekk, både tradisjon og modernitet. Både ytringsfrihet og ja til sensur når noe eller noen krenker islam.

En vesentlig andel – rundt 40 % og enda flere – ønsker et samfunn styrt av sharia, og akkurat den kombinasjonen – sharia og modernitet, er svært vanskelig å realisere. Det blir et lissom-demokrati, og kanskje er det det islamistene i Egypt bygger. I deres øyne er det et fremskritt, og de mener at minoritetene ikke er forpliktet av sharia. Inntil de krenker.

The percentage of Muslims who say they want sharia to be “the official law of the land” varies widely around the world, from fewer than one-in-ten in Azerbaijan (8%) to near unanimity in Afghanistan (99%). But solid majorities in most of the countries surveyed across the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia favor the establishment of sharia, including 71% of Muslims in Nigeria, 72% in Indonesia, 74% in Egypt and 89% in the Palestinian territories.

At the same time, the survey finds that even in many countries where there is strong backing for sharia, most Muslims favor religious freedom for people of other faiths. In Pakistan, for example, three-quarters of Muslims say that non-Muslims are very free to practice their religion, and fully 96% of those who share this assessment say it is “a good thing.” Yet 84% of Pakistani Muslims favor enshrining sharia as official law. These seemingly divergent views are possible partly because most supporters of sharia in Pakistan – as in many other countries – think Islamic law should apply only to Muslims. Moreover, Muslims around the globe have differing understandings of what sharia means in practice.

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In most countries surveyed, majorities of Muslim women as well as men agree that a wife is always obliged to obey her husband. Indeed, more than nine-in-ten Muslims in Iraq (92%), Morocco (92%), Tunisia (93%), Indonesia (93%), Afghanistan (94%) and Malaysia (96%) express this view. At the same time, majorities in many countries surveyed say a woman should be able to decide for herself whether to wear a veil.

Overall, the survey finds that most Muslims see no inherent tension between being religiously devout and living in a modern society. Nor do they see any conflict between religion and science. Many favor democracy over authoritarian rule, believe that humans and other living things have evolved over time and say they personally enjoy Western movies, music and television – even though most think Western popular culture undermines public morality.

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Around the world, most Muslims also reject suicide bombing and other attacks against civilians. However, substantial minorities in several countries say such acts of violence are at least sometimes justified, including 26% of Muslims in Bangladesh, 29% in Egypt, 39% in Afghanistan and 40% in the Palestinian territories.

Interessant nok frykter muslimer flest mest ekstremistene i egne rekker enn blant kristne. Men denne frykten gir seg få utslag i offentligheten – ingen opprop, demonstrasjoner som kan overbevise omverdenen om at de virkelig mener det.

At least half of Muslims in most countries surveyed say they are concerned about religious extremist groups in their country, including two-thirds or more of Muslims in Egypt (67%), Tunisia (67%), Iraq (68%), Guinea Bissau (72%) and Indonesia (78%). On balance, more are worried about Islamic extremists than about Christian extremists.

Problemet ser ut til å være mangel på et sivilt samfunn. Mange muslimer misliker huddud-straffene, halshugging, avhogging av lemmer, og har heller ikke sans for æresdrap. Men hvor er initiativene og organisasjonene som skal bekjempe disse praksisene? I Irak og Afghanistan er det flertall for æresdrap.

http://www.pewforum.org/Muslim/the-worlds-muslims-religion-politics-society-exec.aspx