IS i Sinai smugler våpen inn til Hamas mot å ta en cut av lasten, meldte Washington Institute for Near East Policy tirsdag.
“Over the past two years, IS Sinai helped Hamas move weapons from Iran and Libya through the peninsula, taking a generous cut from each shipment,” according to a Washington Institute for Near East Policy report on Tuesday by Ehud Yaari, a Lafer International Fellow at the think tank.
Yaari, a Middle East commentator for Channel 2, points to a secret visit by Islamic State’s military leader in Sinai, Shadi al-Menai, to Gaza this month to hold talks with Hamas’s military wing.
Both Hamas and Islamic State trace their origins back to the Egypt Muslim Brotherhood, founded by Sheikh Hassan al-Banna.
Hamas is a direct offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, which until 1987, ran its activities through the Muslim Association founded in the mid-1970s and headed by Sheikh Ahmad Yassin.
Hamas skilte lag med Brorskapet da bevegelsen gikk inn for åpen kamp mot Israel.
It was the 1987 intifada that led the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Gaza Strip to embark “upon a direct and violent confrontation with Israel,” as explained in detail by Anat Kurz and Nahman Tal in a 1977 article for the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies titled, “Hamas: Radical Islam in a National Struggle.”
“The operational turn was marked by an organizational change – the establishment of Hamas,” they wrote.
While all Islamist movements, including Islamic State and al-Qaida, are offshoots from the more pragmatic Muslim Brotherhood, they have no patience and use violence to seek immediate results to achieve their goal.
Men det er også forskjeller mellom Hamas og IS, selv om begge er salafister. Hamas legger vekt på nasjonal frigjøring. Det gjør ikke IS. Et annet viktig skille er at Hamas avviser å stemple andre muslimer som takfir, frafalne.
Despite some shared goals between Salafists jihadists and Hamas, such as wanting to establish a caliphate to rule the world, they go about it in different ways.
Islamic State, for example, totally rejects the modern concept of nationalism while Hamas, and its mother movement the Muslim Brotherhood, accept the reality in order to build its power base in each state over time.
In addition, “Hamas rejects the Salafi-jihadist concept of declaring Muslims as apostates (takfir), if they fail to follow the strict Salafi interpretation, and the declaration of jihad against irreligious Muslim rulers,” says Prof. Meir Litvak, the director for the Alliance Center of Iranian Studies at Tel Aviv University in a journal article, «‘Martyrdom is Life’: Jihad and Martyrdom in the Ideology of Hamas.»
Men nå har begge bevegelser fått en felles fiende: Egypt.
Litvak, an expert on Hamas, told The Jerusalem Post that while Hamas and Islamic State have ideological differences, they have a common enemy now, which is the Egyptian government.
“Hamas needs the Salafi jihadists to break the Egyptian siege on Gaza. The Salafists need Hamas technical know-how to produce short range rockets and other weapons,” he said.
“Hence, they ignore their ideological differences for the time being and cooperate,” concluded Litvak.
Sudan og Iran
Samarbeidet med den transnasjonale jihad-bevegelsen går helt tilbake til 90-tallet, da Hamas samarbeidet med al-Qaida i Sudan.
Det er likevel forskjeller. Hamas er integrert i Hizbollah-Iran-nettverket og det er utenkelig for IS.
Jonathan Schanzer, vice president for research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies in Washington, told the Post, “Hamas has always been part of the global jihad movement, despite persistent claims that it is a nationalist terrorist group with strictly nationalist aims.”
Hamas and al-Qaida trained together in Sudan during the early 1990s and the two terror groups maintained close ties for more than a decade, said Schanzer, a former terrorism finance analyst at the US Department of the Treasury.
Furthermore, Hamas also cooperates with other Shi’ite terror supporters and is plugged into the Iran-sponsored terror network, he commented.
The Gaza-based group’s “deep ties to Hezbollah have yielded finance and operational gains over the years,” added Schanzer.
“It is further instructive to note that illicit channels of finance are often shared by multiple actors. In this case, Islamic State and Hamas appear to be sharing the same channels for weapons smuggling and perhaps other financial means.”
“In some cases, this is simply a marriage of convenience. In others, it is a deeper strategic cooperation,” continued Schanzer, adding that in the case of these two terror groups, the shared disdain for Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government could be an indication of the latter.
Men i motstanden mot Abdel Fattah al-Sisis løper både praktiske formål og strategiske overveielser sammen. Det kan gi noen svært negative overraskelser for Egypt og dermed også for Israel. Et Egypt med vanskeligheter betyr også trøbbel for Israel.