Sakset/Fra hofta

Rukmini  Callimachi har reist rundt og intervjuet ofrene for IS’ sex-slaveri. Det hun kommer frem til er at sexslaveriet var velforberedt og organisert. Sexslaveriet var satt i system.

Det som gjør mest inntrykk er at voldtektene hadde en religiøs begrunnelse. Krigerne fortalte at de bare gjorde Allahs vilje når de bandt 12-åringer før de voldtok dem.

Derfor heter artikkelen i New York Times: ISIS Enshrines a Theology of Rape.  Det er en tittel som år en østkystliberaler til å svelge nervøst. For han/hun vet hvilken teologi det er snakk om.

Men fakta er vanskelig å komme utenom. Artikkelen er slått opp som en hovedstory. Den kommer samtidig med ABCs story om at den amerikanske jenta, Kayla Mueller, som ville fylt 27 i disse dager, ble voldtatt av IS-sjefen Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi personlig. Flere ganger.

Det er en opplysning som nok kommer til å koste IS. Voldtekt og seksuell tortur av kvinnelige fanger er noe som gjør inntrykk ut over de som er engasjert fra før. Flere forstår at IS er en trussel man må ta alvorlig. Den forsvinner ikke.

Eller som Callimachi sier i et intervju med avisen: Det hun møtte var organisert grusomhet.

To trekk er fremtredende: Hvor organisert sexslaveriet var og den teologiske rettferdiggjørelsen.

Det seksuelle misbruket er ikke bare «spoils of war». Det er en kjerneverdi hos IS:

Interviews with 21 women and girls who recently escaped the Islamic State, as well as an examination of the group’s official communications, illuminate how the practice has been enshrined in the group’s core tenets.

En bevegelse som voldtar 12-åringer så de får store blødninger og fortsetter med det selv etter at barnet er blitt sykt, er i en egen kategori.

Voldtektens infrastruktur

IS har bygget opp en egen infrastruktur som skal ta hånd om kvinnene og prosessuere dem, til mennene, og gjøre tingene «lovlige» med kontrakter og domstoler til å håndheve dem.

The trade in Yazidi women and girls has created a persistent infrastructure, with a network of warehouses where the victims are held, viewing rooms where they are inspected and marketed, and a dedicated fleet of buses used to transport them.

A total of 5,270 Yazidis were abducted last year, and at least 3,144 are still being held, according to community leaders. To handle them, the Islamic State has developed a detailed bureaucracy of sex slavery, including sales contracts notarized by the ISIS-run Islamic courts. And the practice has become an established recruiting tool to lure men from deeply conservative Muslim societies, where casual sex is taboo and dating is forbidden.

Håndbøker og teologi

IS er systematiske. De baserer seg på fortolkninger av Koranen og hadither. Det er kanskje ikke den eneste mulige fortolkningen, men det er en av dem. Dette volder aviser som New York Times store kvaler og avisen kaller det en «selektiv tolkning» av Koranen. Men faktum er at Muhammed selv laget et system for fordeling av krigsbytte og kvinner var en del av byttet. Muhammed hadde en stor appetitt på fiendens kvinner.

Det er denne praksisen IS har gjenoppdaget.

A growing body of internal policy memos and theological discussions has established guidelines for slavery, including a lengthy how-to manual issued by the Islamic State Research and Fatwa Department just last month. Repeatedly, the ISIS leadership has emphasized a narrow and selective reading of the Quran and other religious rulings to not only justify violence, but also to elevate and celebrate each sexual assault as spiritually beneficial, even virtuous.

Voldtekt som dyd

Likevel er det noe med IS’ praksis som sjokkerer en moderne bevissthet. Det er mulig de gjenoppliver gammel praksis. Det er likevel rystende å lese om mennesker som kan få seg til å tro at voldtekt er en form for religionsutøvelse.

“Every time that he came to rape me, he would pray,” said F, a 15-year-old girl who was captured on the shoulder of Mount Sinjar one year ago and was sold to an Iraqi fighter in his 20s. (…….)

“He kept telling me this is ibadah,” she said, using a term from Islamic scripture meaning worship.

“He said that raping me is his prayer to God. I said to him, ‘What you’re doing to me is wrong, and it will not bring you closer to God.’ And he said, ‘No, it’s allowed. It’s halal,’ ” said the teenager, who escaped in April with the help of smugglers after being enslaved for nearly nine months.

Ett år siden

Det hele begynte for ett år, 3. august 2014, siden da IS erobret yezidienes landsbyer, to måneder etter at de tok Mosul.

Allerede da begynte behandlingen av yezidiene ut fra det IS oppfatter er Profetens praksis og Koranens bokstav: Når man hører at gutter måtte rekke opp hendene for å vise om de hadde hår i armhulene, faller det inn i behandlingen av jenter.

Det minner sterkt om Einsatzgruppens behandling av jøder i Øst-Europa og Sovjetunionen. Men slike paralleller er ubehagelige, siden det innebærer en sammenligning mellom nazismen og islamismen.

Survivors say that men and women were separated within the first hour of their capture. Adolescent boys were told to lift up their shirts, and if they had armpit hair, they were directed to join their older brothers and fathers. In village after village, the men and older boys were driven or marched to nearby fields, where they were forced to lie down in the dirt and sprayed with automatic fire.

Sex-erobringstokt

En amerikansk professor som er spesialist på yezidiene mener hensikten med felttoget var seksuell erobring. Det var å skaffe seg en stor forsyning av sex-slaver.

The women, girls and children, however, were hauled off in open-bed trucks.

“The offensive on the mountain was as much a sexual conquest as it was for territorial gain,” said Matthew Barber, a University of Chicago expert on the Yazidi minority. He was in Dohuk, near Mount Sinjar, when the onslaught began last summer and helped create a foundation that provides psychological support for the escapees, who number more than 2,000, according to community activists.

«Srebrenica»

Måten familiene ble skilt på, og fraktet vekk på, kan minne om serbernes behandling av bosniaker. Kvinner ble øyeblikkelig adskilt. Det sto busser klare til å frakte dem vekk. Det var busser som var brukt til haji – pilgrimsferd til Mekka. Når ble de anvendt til annet formål. Serberne rekvirerte busser på samme måte for å frakte bosniaker til retterstedene rundt Srebrenica.

En detalj: bussene hadde gardiner, for IS-krigerne skulle transportere kvinner som ikke var tildekket.

Once the bus headed out, they noticed that the windows were blocked with curtains, an accouterment that appeared to have been added because the fighters planned to transport large numbers of women who were not covered in burqas or head scarves.

Sentraler

Yazidi.girls

Foto: Yezidi-jenter i Dohuk. Hva disse har gjennomgått vites ikke, men det er jenter som dem IS har gjort til lovlig bytte.

Kvinnene ble samlet på oppsamlingspunkt som var store bryllupshaller eller Saddams palasser. Her sto alt klart til dem, flere hundre plasser viste at de ventet storinnrykk. De ble sittende å vente i månedsvis, så kom bussene og fraktet dem ut til «kundene».

They would be held in confinement, some for days, some for months. Then, inevitably, they were loaded into the same fleet of buses again before being sent in smaller groups to Syria or to other locations inside Iraq, where they were bought and sold for sex.

“It was 100 percent preplanned,” said Khider Domle, a Yazidi community activist who maintains a detailed database of the victims. “I spoke by telephone to the first family who arrived at the Directory of Youth in Mosul, and the hall was already prepared for them. They had mattresses, plates and utensils, food and water for hundreds of people.”

Lister 

F befant seg i Galaxy Banquet Hall i Mosul, sammen med 1.300 andre yezidi-jenter i tenårene.

They each described how three Islamic State fighters walked in, holding a register. They told the girls to stand. Each one was instructed to state her first, middle and last name, her age, her hometown, whether she was married, and if she had children.

For two months, F was held inside the Galaxy hall. Then one day, they came and began removing young women. Those who refused were dragged out by their hair, she said.

Det som ventet dem minnet om serbernes bruk av voldtekt. Men mens serberne brukt voldtekt som et middel i krigen, til å knekke bosniakene psykisk, har IS en teologisk begrunnelse.

Grunnfestet

Det kom bakpå IS at noen av sympatisørene forsøkte å benekte sex-slaveriet da det ble kjent høsten 2014. I bladet Dabiq forsvarte de praksisen og begrunnet den religiøst.

“Prior to the taking of Sinjar, Shariah students in the Islamic State were tasked to research the Yazidis,” said the English-language article, headlined “The Revival of Slavery Before the Hour,” which appeared in the October issue of Dabiq.

The article made clear that for the Yazidis, there was no chance to pay a tax known as jizya to be set free, “unlike the Jews and Christians.”

IS hadde mao gjort et forarbeid som lå til grunn for sex-slaveriet. Det faller en islam-scholar NYTimes intervjuer, tungt for brystet og avisen sammenligner med at visse bibelvers ble brukt til å rettferdiggjøre slaveriet.

En annen scholar nøler ikke med å grunnfeste sex-slaveriet i islams tekster.

Cole Bunzel, a scholar of Islamic theology at Princeton University, disagrees, pointing to the numerous references to the phrase “Those your right hand possesses” in the Quran, which for centuries has been interpreted to mean female slaves. He also points to the corpus of Islamic jurisprudence, which continues into the modern era and which he says includes detailed rules for the treatment of slaves.

“There is a great deal of scripture that sanctions slavery,” said Mr. Bunzel, the author of a research paper published by the Brookings Institution on the ideology of the Islamic State. “You can argue that it is no longer relevant and has fallen into abeyance. ISIS would argue that these institutions need to be revived, because that is what the Prophet and his companions did.”

Auksjoner

IS laget lister over jentene og la dem ut for auksjon på nettet, med bilder.

Their captors appeared to have a system in place, replete with its own methodology of inventorying the women, as well as their own lexicon. Women and girls were referred to as “Sabaya,” followed by their name. Some were bought by wholesalers, who photographed and gave them numbers, to advertise them to potential buyers.

I sentraene var det egne rom for fremvisning til kundene. Det minnet om auksjoner over svarte slaver.

Buildings where the women were collected and held sometimes included a viewing room.

“When they put us in the building, they said we had arrived at the ‘Sabaya Market,’” said one 19-year-old victim, whose first initial is I. “I understood we were now in a slave market.”

Orientalisme i ny drakt

Med Edward Said begynte kritikken av Vesten for «orientalisme», herunder å gjøre ottomannernes harem for eksotiske. IS gjenoppliver harem, men det er ikke mye eksotisk over dem. De paraderer jenter ned i 11 år nakne foran «emirer» som vurderer hvem de skal ta.

She estimated there were at least 500 other unmarried women and girls in the multistory building, with the youngest among them being 11. When the buyers arrived, the girls were taken one by one into a separate room.

“The emirs sat against the wall and called us by name. We had to sit in a chair facing them. You had to look at them, and before you went in, they took away our scarves and anything we could have used to cover ourselves,” she said.

Jentene ble stilt inngående intime spørsmål, om mens-syklusen, for å slå fast om de var gravide. Gravide kan ikke jihadistene ha samleie med.

Byråkrati

IS bygger en stat på slik islam var i sin opprinnelse. Derfor er fenomen som sex-slaveri teologisk begrunnet og praksis formalisert.

Det finnes en utvei for slaven: Hun kan bli frigitt av sin herre. Det skjedde da den libyske krigeren sa han skulle ut på en selvmordsaksjon, og at hun derfor fikk sin frihet. Han utstedte et bevis og det brukte hun hele veien gjennom utallige veisperringer gjennom Syria til hun nådde familien sin i Irak.

Også kristne og jøder

En ny fatwa sier at også kristne og jødiske jenter kan gjøres til sex-slaver. Den er fra i sommer.

The Islamic State recently made it clear that sex with Christian and Jewish women captured in battle is also permissible, according to a new 34-page manual issued this summer by the terror group’s Research and Fatwa Department.

Voldtekt av barn

IS er eksplisitt på at det ikke er noe forbud mot å ha sex med barn. Dette skjer også i praksis.

Beyond that, there appears to be no bounds to what is sexually permissible. Child rape is explicitly condoned: “It is permissible to have intercourse with the female slave who hasn’t reached puberty, if she is fit for intercourse,” according to a translation by the Middle East Media Research Institute of a pamphlet published on Twitter last December.

Det er vanskelig å fatte at menn kan begå slike handlinger mot små barn. Historien om saudi-araberen som voldtar en 12-åring så hun blir syk, og likevel fortsetter å voldta henne og ber før hver voldtekt, handler om det som gjør IS til noe spesielt. Det er ubehagelig å forholde seg til, men kanskje det er hva Vesten trenger å forstå, nå som våre Vestens egne unge suger til seg ideologien.

Hvis dette er standarden, hva er de ikke i stand til å gjøre? Kanskje vi må revurdere hva som er mulig.

One 34-year-old Yazidi woman, who was bought and repeatedly raped by a Saudi fighter in the Syrian city of Shadadi, described how she fared better than the second slave in the household — a 12-year-old girl who was raped for days on end despite heavy bleeding.

“He destroyed her body. She was badly infected. The fighter kept coming and asking me, ‘Why does she smell so bad?’ And I said, she has an infection on the inside, you need to take care of her,” the woman said.

Unmoved, he ignored the girl’s agony, continuing the ritual of praying before and after raping the child.

“I said to him, ‘She’s just a little girl,’ ” the older woman recalled. “And he answered: ‘No. She’s not a little girl. She’s a slave. And she knows exactly how to have sex.’ ’’

“And having sex with her pleases God,” he said.

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